VIPs indeed - Zimbabwe
Such an interesting contrast – between the sense of a country living in a time warp, from a Victoria Falls to Harare bus ride it feels to me like one or two generations behind development in East Africa for example, and the ubiquity of VIP Latrines ('Ventilated Improved Pit Latrines, Blair Research) …. Which rather negates my ongoing hypothesis that improved water and sanitation is a function of economic wealth (Zimbabwe GDP per person USD$1,080 https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.CD).
The ‘exception that proves the rule’? Or perhaps just goes to show that with the right combination of ‘Carrots, Sticks and Sermons’, the sermons definitely needing to be above average IEC (Information, Education and Communication), you can ‘nudge’ people into a much higher standard of watsan than any ‘demand responsive’ approach might indicate.