Korea's amazing sanitation transformation
This micro case study, included in the IWA Regulating CWIS Case Studies compilation (in press), is a super summary of the Korean Water and Wastewater Works Association publication referenced below.
It has been included to give a sense of cost levels of a ‘fully sewered and wastewater treated’ urban sanitation system, a sense of public subsidy levels which have been deployed in Korea in addition to confirming that there is a role for the private sector in operations (with opex benefits) and, less significant, financing.
“Using regulatory techniques, though not a 'regulator', sewerage connection and treatment rates in [Republic of] Korea rose from about 2% (1961) to about 90% (2012), supported by accessing $800m of private capital financing for 00 wastewater treatment plants 1998-2008 (also delivering a 25% reduction in plant opex). This in the context of National and Local Subsidies averaging $2.8 billion per year and water user charges increasing about 3.8 times (2000-2012).”